|The 1900 census in Canada indicated that there were over
2000 Indians, primarily Punjabis living in Canada. Even though the
number seems low given the population at the time, it was a statistic
enough to alarm the populous (or at least the politicians).
Canadians wanted the "brown invasion" to stop. They felt
growing number of Indians would take over their jobs in factories, mills
and lumber yards. It was these insecurities which led British
Columbia to pass stringent laws discouraging the immigration of Indians
to Canada. Indians had to have at least $200 on their person to enter
British Columbia (at an average par rate of $.10 per day this was
a real task). The Federal government, in 1908, passed into Law the
Continuous Passage Act which stated that Indians would have to come to
Canada via direct passage from India. Considering the distance
from India to Canada by boat and the average income in India, these
rules and laws were blatant discrimination.
At the same time as the Continuous Passage Act and many other laws
were being enacted against Indian, Japanese and Chinese were immigrating
in large numbers. Indians were also denied the vote in a 1907 law,
prohibited to run for public office, serve on juries, and were not
permitted to become accountants, lawyers or pharmacists.
In 1914, a fairly well off Sikh, Gurdit Singh, living in Hong Kong,
decided to challenge the law by sending a shipload of Indians to Canada
as immigrants. He charted the Komagata Maru, a Japanese
steamliner. He began selling tickets for the voyage right up until
2 days before the planned departure. On that day he was arrested
by the Hong Kong police on the charge of illegally selling tickets for
an illegal voyage and the ship placed under police guard.
On March 24, 1914, the governor of Hong Kong, who had known Gurdit
Singh in Malaysia, released him from custody and granted him leave to
sail to Canada on April 4.
The ship upped-anchor that very day with 150 Sikh passengers.
They made stops in Shanghai, Moji and Yokohama where they picked
up more would-be immigrants.
When Komagata Maru made it to Shanghai, a
German cable company sent a message to the German press announcing the
departure of the steamer Komagata Maru from Shanghai for Vancouver on
April 14 with "400 Indians on board".
The news was picked up by British press. The
Vancouver newspaper, The Province, published news report
under the heading of "Boat Loads of Hindus on Way to
Vancouver" and "Hindu Invasion of Canada".
The news of its departure reached the
British Columbia authorities. Their instant reaction was that
"Hindus would never be allowed to land in Canada." The Indians
who had already settled in Canada had also started to prepare for the
arrival of the Komagata Maru. Meetings were held in the Gurdwaras
concerning what actions to take. Money and provisions were collected to
help the passengers upon their arrival in Vancouver. The entire Indian
community in Canada united to fight the opposition.
On May 23, 1914, the Komagata Maru reached
anchored near Burrard Inlet. Both the Indians and the Canadian
authorities had been waiting for it. The Canadians wanted to send the
ship back to where it had originated. The Indians on the other side had
lawyers, money and other provisions ready to help the passengers.
The Canadian authorities did not let the
passengers leave the boat claiming they had violated the exclusionist
laws. The claim was that the ship had not arrived via direct passage and
most passengers did not have the $200 that would have qualified them to
enter British Columbia.
For two months the passengers of the
Komagata Maru, the Indians in British Columbia, and the authorities of
British Columbia were involved in a heated legal battle. In the end,
only 24 passengers were given permission to legally stay in Canada. On
July 23, 1914 the Komagata Maru was forced to leave Victoria harbor and
return to Hong Kong.