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Klondike Gold Rush- Part 1: Background

Back to The Klondike Gold Rush.

When I was growing up, my favorite poem, hands down, was The Cremation of Sam McGee, by Robert Service. If you’ve never had the pleasure of acquainting yourself with this fantastic poem or the man who wrote it, please allow me to fill you in. Robert William Service was a British-Canadian poet and banker who spent his youth tramping around in Canada and the United States, working odd jobs, before moving to Whitehorse, Yukon, in 1904. Only five years after the end of the famous Klondike Gold Rush, 30-year-old Robert Service began to write poems about the Canadian North and the hard men who inhabited it. One of his most famous poems is The Cremation of Sam McGee. In a nutshell, this poem is the story of a prospector who hauls the frozen corpse of his partner through the Arctic in search of a crematorium. The poem opens with the haunting lines:

There are strange things done in the midnight sun 

By the men who moil for gold;

The Arctic trails have their secret tales

That would make your blood run cold;

The Northern Lights have seen queer sights,

But the queerest they ever did see

Was that night on the marge of Lake Lebarge

I cremated Sam McGee.

Over the years, the Klondike Gold Rush of 1896-1899 has been the inspiration for and backdrop of countless fictional tales, like some of Robert Service’s most famous poems. From Jack London’s White Fang to Charlie Chaplin’s The Gold Rush to the radio series Challenge of the Yukon, this exciting piece of Canadian history has been immortalized in North American popular culture. In addition to their entertainment value, these fictional pieces all give rise to the questions: What strange things were “done in the midnight sun?” Who were “the men who moil[ed] for gold?” What is the true story of the Klondike Gold Rush?

The Yukon

Before we can learn the true story of the Klondike Gold Rush, we must first familiarize ourselves with the land in which it took place.

The Klondike Gold Rush took place in what is now Yukon, one of Canada’s three northern territories. Today, Yukon is bordered by America’s Alaska to the west, British Columbia to the south, the Northwest Territories to the east, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Before 1898, however, the area was part of Canada’s vast North-West Territories a region which, at one time, included nearly all western Canada (except British Columbia).

Yukon’s summers are short and warm and almost perpetually light, owing to the fact that, in the far north, the summer sun only sets late in the evening. In the Arctic Circle, northerners experience the midnight sun, a phenomenon in which the sun remains above the horizon even until midnight during the summer solstice. In contrast, Yukon’s winters are long, dark, and bitterly cold. In fact, the coldest day ever recorded in North America occurred on February 3, 1947, in Snag, Yukon. That day, the temperature dropped to a bone-chilling -63° C, or -81° F!

Most of the Yukon, save for the barren tundra in its north, is covered by taiga, or boreal forest, a timber-land consisting almost exclusively of pines and spruce. Yukon’s taiga is home to some sub-arctic denizens, including (but certainly not limited to) caribou, moose, wolves, eagles, ravens, lynx, and all three species of North American bear (black, grizzly, and polar). Due to its brutal climate, only the hardiest of animals survive in the Yukon.

In addition to the boreal forest and its residents, the Yukon is dominated by three main types of terrestrial features: mountains, lakes, and rivers:

The Coast Mountains in southwest Yukon include Canada’s five highest mountains: Mount Logan, Mount St. Elias, Mount Luciana, King Peak, and Mount Steele. In Yukon’s southeast are the Cassiar Mountains. In the east are the Selwyn and Mackenzie Mountains. The Yukon Ranges are in west and central Yukon, while the Brooks Range is in the north.

Some of the  most prominent of Yukon’s many lakes are Kluane Lake, Lake Laberge, and Mayo Lake.

Last, but certainly not least, the geography of the Yukon is dominated by the watersheds of two massive rivers: the Mackenzie and the Yukon. The watershed of the Mackenzie River, which flows latitudinally down the Northwest Territories to the east, makes its mark upon eastern Yukon. The massive Yukon River, however, begins in the Coast Mountains of southwestern Yukon and winds north and west through the territory before turning west into Alaska and emptying into the Bering Sea.

Where was Klondike Gold Rush?

“The Klondike”, the site of the Klondike Gold Rush, is a sub-region of the Yukon which gets its name from the Klondike River, one of the many tributaries of the great Yukon River. The Klondike River begins in the Ogilvie Mountains, one of the Yukon Ranges of central Yukon, and empties into the Yukon River at the site of present day Dawson City.

The Klondike, in the context of the Klondike Gold Rush, is a relatively small patch of land in west-central Yukon. It is roughly bounded by the Klondike River to the north, the Yukon River to the west, the Indian River (another tributary of the Yukon River) to the south, and a small stream called Flat Creek (which today is paralleled by the Klondike Highway) to the east. This square-like area is covered by a spiderweb of creeks, all of which seem to emanate from a single point, like spokes from a the hub of a wheel. This point from which the creeks of the Klondike goldfields flow is a 4000-foot-high peak known today as King Solomon’s Dome. Some believe that this mountain was the source of the Klondike’s gold.

The Klondike Gold Rush Background

For centuries before the Klondike Gold Rush, the Yukon was home to various First Nations. Athabascan tribes inhabited the interior. The Gwich’in resided in the north, the Han in the central west on the Yukon River (and on in the Klondike), and the North and South Tutchone in the central and south-central Yukon, respectively. The Kaska lived in the southeast, while the Tagish resided in the southwest around Tagish Lake and Marsh Lake. On the west coast and within the Coast Mountains lived the powerful, warlike Tlingit.

Long before the arrival of European fur trading companies, the Athabascans of the interior had routinely traded with the coastal Tlingit. The Athabascans would trade copper, hides, dried meat, obsidian, and mats of dried berries. In return, the Tlingit would give them eulachon oil, dried red laver seaweed, and Chilkat blankets. Eulachon oil was such a popular trade item that the interior-coastal trade routes were called “grease trails”. One well-used grease trail crossed the Coastal Mountains of southwest Yukon via the Chilkoot Pass, a mountain pass which would feature prominently in the Klondike Gold Rush. The coastal Tlingit were fiercely protective of the Chilkoot Pass and guarded it jealously.

Although the Yukon Indians were certainly aware that their country was chock-full of gold, they made no effort to extract the mineral. Gold is soft and malleable and a less than ideal material for tools. For many Indians, copper, another mineral prevalent in the Yukon, was a much more valuable commodity.

In the first half of the 1800’s, the Yukon was penetrated by two different types of European explorers from two different directions. Russian explorers employed by the Russian-American Company came from the west. Since 1732, the Russian Empire had laid claim to ‘Russian America’, the land we know today as the State of Alaska, and had established settlements along the Pacific Coast. They sought to exploit Russian America for its valuable furs, and paid little heed when explorers returned with tales of gold-bearing creeks.

At the same time, British-Canadian explorers employed by the Hudson’s Bay Company pushed into the Yukon from the east. The HBC had established fur trading posts on the Mackenzie River in present-day Northwest Territories, and sent expeditions further west in search of other prospects. They, too, were concerned predominantly with the acquisition of furs, and decided not to follow-up on rumors of a northwestern El Dorado.

The Yukon Pioneers

In 1848’s, far to the south, gold was discovered in California’s Sierra Nevada mountains. Over the next seven years, 300 thousand prospectors from all over the world flocked to the California goldfields to search for the precious metal. It was the first major North American gold rush.

Soon, gold fever made its way north into Canada. 1851 saw a minor gold rush on Queen Charlottes Islands, which mostly involved Hudson’s Bay Company employees and local Haida Indians. In 1857, gold was discovered on the Thompson River near present-day Lytton, BC. The ensuing gold rush, known as the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, was the catalyst for the formation of the Colony of British Columbia. Prospectors who had toiled in the Fraser Canyon to no avail left in search of greener pastures… and found one on Williams Creek, BC. The various strikes on William’s Creek and the surrounding area would lead to what has arguably become Canada’s most famous gold rush, the Cariboo Gold Rush of 1861-1867. Throughout the latter half of the 19th century, prospectors worked their way up Canada’s Rocky Mountains, starting the Wild Horse Creek Gold Rush of 1864 (near present-day Fort Steele) and the Cassiar Gold Rush of the 1870’s (in Cassiar Country in northwest BC).

Soon, the prospector diaspora which spread up western North America reached the remote wilds of the Yukon. The first man to enter the Yukon in search of gold was an Irishman named Arthur Harper. By the time he came to the Yukon, Harper was a seasoned prospector. He had worked the California goldfields in the 1850’s, and he had searched for British Columbian gold throughout the 1860’s. In 1872 and 1873, he traveled up the Peace, Liard, Mackenzie, Ray, and Porcupine Rivers to the Yukon River. He traveled further up the Yukon River until he reached Fort Yukon, an Alaskan village which revolved around an old Hudson’s Bay Company trading post of the same name.

There, Harper partnered up with two men named Alfred Mayo and Leroy Napoleon “Jack” McQuesten. Together, the three men panned the Stewart, Fortymile, Tanana, and Klondike Rivers for gold. They met with little success. In time, the prospectors began to work as traders for the Alaska Commercial Company. They established Fort Reliance on the Yukon River and traded American goods like flour, sugar, tea, and calico for Han copper and furs. In years to come, Fort Reliance became such a prominent landmark that creeks and rivers were named after their distance from it. For example, Fortymile River was so named because it flows into the Yukon River forty miles downriver from Fort Reliance.

Another of the early prospectors to come to the Yukon was an Ohio-born Quaker named George Holt. With the assistance of a two Indian guides, Holt traveled to the Dyea Inlet in southwest Yukon by boat sometime in the mid-1870’s. Then, he somehow managed to slip over the Chilkoot Pass without being killed (remember, the Pass was closely guarded by Tlingit warriors). He was the first white man to scale the Chilkoot Pass. Holt and his two native companions prospected around the headwaters of the Yukon River before travelling south to Sitka, a town on the Alaskan Panhandle. When Holt showed some of the Sitka residents the gold nuggets he had procured on the other side of the Coast Mountains, a number of enterprising prospectors traveled to the Chilkoot Pass armed to the teeth with rifles and Gatling guns. They persuaded the Tlingit to open the Pass for good.

After Holt, small groups of prospectors trickled through the Chilkoot Pass. They paid the local Tlingit to haul their outfits over the mountains. According to all accounts, Tlingit men were stocky, muscular, and physically powerful, and could easily shoulder heavy loads. Years later, during the Klondike Gold Rush, the ambitious Tlingit would make their fortunes hauling loads to the Klondike goldfields.

Another interesting prospector to make his way to the Yukon in the early years was a miner named Edward Lawrence Schieffelin. Schieffelin had been a prospector since he as 17 years old. He panned for gold and silver in Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and California before moving to Arizona. There, while prospecting in dangerous territory controlled by hostile Apaches, Schieffelin stumbled upon a silver bonanza. He, along with his brother and a friend, founded the Tombstone Gold and Silver Mining Company. The three partners opened a series of mines and quickly became millionaires.

Throughout his years of prospecting and studying geological maps, Schieffelin formed a theory that a great “continental belt” of minerals girded the earth. He believed that the belt roughly followed a path leading from Cape Horn, Argentina, up east Asia and down through the continental divide of North America. Interestingly, Schieffelin’s hypothetical mineral belt is roughly congruent with the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire (where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common). To test his theory, he decided to make a prospecting expedition to the Yukon to see what minerals might be found. Along with his brother and three companions, he commissioned a steamer which he christened the New Racket. In 1882, the men took the steamer up the Pacific Coast to the western coast of Alaska. They entered the Yukon River delta and traveled all the way into the interior. After some panning, the seasoned prospector quickly found gold dust. However, the American had made his fortune labouring under the sweltering Arizonan sun, and was not very well prepared for the frozen Arctic. After selling the New Racket to Harper, Mayo, McQuensten, and their new partner, Joseph Ladue, the millionaire headed home never to return.

The Fortymile Gold Rush

Meanwhile, in the Yukon, Arthur Harper, Alfred Mayo, and Jack McQuesten had developed into respected frontiersmen. Mayo was a wiry ex-acrobat and McQuesten a barrel-chested ex-farmer. Resultant of the years in the far north, however, all three were now seasoned northerners well accustomed with what Robert Service termed, in his titular poem, “The Law of the Yukon”. The three men made their living trading with local Han Indians and outfitting the handful of prospectors that came to the area. In addition to Fort Reliance, they established a number of trading posts along the Yukon River. According to an Alaskan Commercial Company employee, the three partners were “typically frontiersmen, absolutely honest, without a semblance of fear of anything, and to a great extent childlike in their implicit faith in human nature, looking on their fellow pioneers as being as honest as themselves.”

In the winter of 1886/87, Harper suggested that two prospectors try their luck on Fortymile River. Sure enough, the men found quality gold dust in the river. They informed Harper of their find, and began to spread the word to other friendly miners in the area.

After hearing the news, Harper realized that a gold rush in the Yukon would be disastrous. He and his partners were the only outfitters in the interior. If too many prospectors came to the area, they would not have enough produce to feed everyone. Widespread starvation was a very real possibility. In a panic, he sent a messenger to the nearest point of civilization, requesting more stock.

It so happened that the nearest point of civilization was a trading post on the Dyea Inlet. The post was run by none other than John J. Healy, an American with an interesting Canadian past. Back in the 1860’s, Healy had lived in Fort Benton, Montana. There, he traded whisky and other goods to the local Blackfoot in exchange for buffalo robes. In the late 1860’s, the U.S. Army drove most of the Blackfoot north into British possessions. Healy, a wily businessman, decided to follow his customers. At the site of present-day Lethbridge, Alberta, he and some partners established a trading post which would become known as Fort Whoop-Up. Others followed their example and built trading posts nearby. The whisky that the Americans sold from their forts had a terrible effect on the local Indians. Soon, the situation became so bad that the Canadian government was forced to act. In 1873, the North West Mounted Police was formed, and in 1874 the Force marched west. When they arrived on the western Canadian plains, the Mounties shut down the whisky trade. Embittered and out of business, John Healy returned to Montana and became the sheriff of Chouteau County. In 1886, he predicted there would be a massive gold rush in Yukon country. And so he left the prairies and established a trading post on the Dyea Inlet.

Anyways, a steamboat man named Tom Williams agreed to bring Harper’s message to Healy. He set off, with an Indian guide, up a route which would one day become known as the Chilkoot Trail. After a harrowing journey through brutal winter conditions, the two men arrived at Healy’s post. Williams had come down with a horrific case of frostbite on his face, feet, and fingers and only survived for two more days. Before he died, though, he managed to pass on his message.

In time, word got around about the find on the Fortymile River. Soon, a minor gold rush was in the works. Many of the prospectors settled around the confluence of the Fortymile and Yukon Rivers, and a town quickly developed on the spot. The prospectors named the town Fortymile, after the river.

As Harper predicted, there was not enough food to go around at Fortymile during that first year. Many prospectors made the freezing journey to St. Michael, Alaska, at the end of the Yukon River. A handful remained in Fortymile and had a very hungry winter.

After winter, supplies arrived at Fortymile and the small gold rush resumed in full force. Adventurers, most of them American, flocked to the Yukon. Some were in search of fortune, others in search of respite from civilization. Some of them were Sourdoughs- hard men tempered by at least one winter in the north. Others were Cheechakos– newcomers to the Canadian subarctic. Some were veterans of the Civil War, while others were frontiersmen from the Wild West. Many were prospectors, and a handful were well-educated English remittance men. Some were even missionaries. All, however, had something in common. Perhaps Robert Service described this elusive quality best in the first verse of his poem, The Men That Don’t Fit In:

There’s a race of men that don’t fit in,
    A race that can’t stay still;
So they break the hearts of kith and kin,
    And they roam the world at will.
They range the field and they rove the flood,
    And they climb the mountain’s crest;
Theirs is the curse of the gypsy blood,
    And they don’t know how to rest.
The miners of Fortymile employed a unique mining technique to get to bedrock, where the gold was. Since the ground was perma-frozen, digging was next to impossible. Instead of digging through frozen earth, they built fires on the spot where they wished to mine. In the morning, the fires were out and the ground was thawed. The miners would spend the day digging through the thawed earth before starting the process all over again. In the spring, they built sluice boxes and diverted spring runoff into them. Then, they shoveled the dump from the mine into the sluice boxes, which was washed away by the water. In the crossbars at the bottoms of the boxes, heavy gold would accumulate.
The social life at Fortymile revolved around the ten saloons that sprung up. The saloons sold either diluted whisky or hootchinoo, a rough northern alcohol. In accordance with the strange, anarcho-communistic code of honour that the Fortymile prospectors adopted, every man who bought a drink was obliged to buy a round for everyone in the saloon. And everyone who received a drink was obliged to finish it. In addition, the patron, who paid for the drinks in gold dust, was expected to turn his back while the bartender weighed out the amount.
Another of the bizarre forms of entertainment enjoyed by the Fortymile prospectors was a weekly dance with local Han wives. According to a spectator:
“We were attracted by a row of miners who were lined up in front of the saloon engaged in watching the door of a very large log cabin opposite, rather dilapidated with the windows broken in.…
They said there was going to be a dance, but when or how they did not seem to know.…
The evening wore on until ten o’clock, when in the dusk a stolid Indian woman with a baby in the blanket on her back, came cautiously around the corner, and with the peculiar long slouchy step of her kind, made for the cabin door, looking neither to the right nor to the left.…
She was followed by a dozen others, one far behind another, each silent and unconcerned, and each with a baby upon her back. They sidled into the log cabin and sat down on the benches, where they also deposited their babies in a row: the little red people lay there very still, with wide eyes shut or staring, but never crying.…
The mothers sat awhile looking at the ground on some one spot, then slowly lifted their heads to look at the miners who had slouched into the cabin after them – men fresh from the diggings, spoiling for excitement of any kind. Then a man with a dilapidated fiddle struck up a swinging, sawing melody and in the intoxication of the moment some of the most reckless of the miners grabbed an Indian woman and began furiously swinging her around in a sort of waltz while the others crowded and looked on.
Little by little the dusk grew deeper, but candles were scarce and could not be afforded. The figures of the dancing couples grew more and more indistinct and their faces became lost to view, while the sawing of the fiddle grew more and more rapid, and the dancing more excited. There was no noise, however; scarcely a sound save the fiddle and the shuffling of the feet over the floor of rough hewn logs; for the Indian women were as stolid as ever and the miners could not speak the language of their partners. Even the lookers on said nothing, so that these silent dancing figures in the dusk made an almost weird effect. One by one, however, the women looked on.
One by one, however, the women dropped out, tired, picked up their babies and slouched off home, and the men slipped over to the saloon to have a drink before going to their cabins. Surely this [dance] was one of the most peculiar balls ever seen.…”
The culture of Fortymile was equally peculiar; almost utopian. Outfitters like Harper and McQuesten gave prospectors supplies on unlimited credit. Prospectors shared everything they had, including knowledge of gold finds, with their neighbours. And each man’s cabin was open to travelers. The only law that prevailed in Fortymile was the “Golden Rule”.
The prospectors of Fortymile settled their disputes in so-called ‘miners’ meetings’, which were typically held in saloons. Disputes were settled democratically, and decisions were made by a show of hands. In 1893, John Healy took offense to one of the rulings of a miners’ meeting, and took matters into his own hands. To make a long story short, he endeavored to restrict the freedom of one of his female employees, and was condemned for it by the miners, many of whom valued freedom above all else. Instead of accepting the verdict of the prospectors, however, he entreated the support of his old enemies, the North West Mounted Police.
Due in part to Healy’s entreaty, in 1894, the NWMP came to Fortymile. The small detachment, led by Inspector Charles Constantine, quickly brought Canadian law and order to the wild northwestern frontier. Little did the Mounties know that their presence in the area would prove to be absolutely vital in two years’ time, when the Yukon would be rocked by the biggest gold rush Canada has ever known.

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O Canada – The Canadian National Anthem

On Monday, January 25, 2016, kids all over the country stood for the O Canada before morning announcements. Young men- like the Medicine Hat Tigers in Prince George, BC, and the Kindersley Klippers in Wilkox, Saskatchewan- removed their helmets for the Canadian National Anthem before battling the home team on the ice. And grey-haired bureaucrats in Ottawa, the Capital of Canada, discussed the fate of the O Canada before adjourning at 7:30 pm.

On January 25, Canada’s House of Commons resumed, and with it the efforts of Liberal MP Mauril Belanger to make the Canadian National Anthem “gender neutral”. Belanger, who is suffering from ALS, has declared that he intends to reintroduce his bill to change our national anthem’s second line. Specifically, he wants to change true patriot love “in all thy sons command” to “in all of us command”. The Ottawa-area MP argues that the current lyrics “in all thy sons” neglect to reflect the sacrifices and contributions Canadian women.

Belanger is not the first parliamentarian to take up the torch on this perceived issue. In accordance with the epidemic of political correctness that has taken this millennium by storm, left-leaning Canadian politicians have tried to “modernize” Canada’s national anthem for years. Some, like former Governor General Michaelle Jean, have championed Belanger’s crusade. Others, like former Toronto city councillor Howard Moscoe, fear the O Canada’s words “our home and native land” are exclusive to Canadian immigrants. Others still seek to remove the anthem’s religious references so as to not offend secularists and religious minorities.

Many of us Canadians are strongly opposed to these proposed changes. We see the Canadian National Anthem as a fundamental element of our national identity. To us, the O Canada is something that should not be subject to change, lest we want to advertise to the world our country’s lack of pride in its lineage and lack of faith in itself. 

Proponents of Belanger’s cause present a solid counterargument, however. They remind us that the words “in all of us command” are actually closer to the lyrics of an earlier version of O Canada written in 1908. They argue that a “gender neutral” version would actually be more authentic than the version we have now. That counterargument raises a couple of questions: How many versions of our national anthem are there? When was our national anthem first written? What is the history of Canada’s National Anthem?

The History of O Canada

The first version of The Canadian National Athem was written by French Canadian composer Calixa Lavallee. Lavallee wrote the piece in 1880, just thirteen years after Constitution.

Lavallee lived a colourful life. He was born in a suburb of Montreal in 1841. His father, a master organ builder, taught him to play the organ at a young age. At 25, Lavallee left Canada for the United States. There, he won a music competition and ended up touring Brazil and the West Indies with a Spanish violin virtuoso. He returned to the United States just in time to fight for the Union Army in the Civil War. In the Reconstruction Era following the war, Lavallee toured the United States with show companies. When he was not on the road, he took up residence in various cities, including Montreal, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York City. He ended up settling down in Boston.

Despite being an expatriate, Lavallee was considered by many to be a Canadian national musician. Like Edvard Grieg in Norway and Jean Sibelius in Finland, Lavallee performed and composed music which helped young Canada establish a national identity.

In January 1880, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec commissioned Lavallee to compose a tune for St-Jean-Baptiste Day. St-Jean-Baptiste Day is a Catholic Quebecois feast day on June 24 which celebrates the birth of John the Baptist. The tune was put to the lyrics of a poem written by Adolphe-Basile Routhier, a French Canadian judge and writer. Lavallee completed the song in time. It was performed for the first time on the evening of June 24, 1880, in Quebec City. It was entitled the “Chant national”.

When translated literally from French to English, the Chant National Lyrics read:

Under the eye of God, near the giant river,
The Canadian grows hoping.
He was born of a proud race,
Blessed was his birthplace.
Heaven has noted his career
In this new world.
Always guided by its light,
He will keep the honour of his flag,
He will keep the honour of his flag.

From his patron, the precursor of the true God,
He wears the halo of fire on his brow.
Enemy of tyranny,
But full of loyalty,
He wants to keep in harmony,
His proud freedom;
And by the effort of his genius,
Set on our ground the truth,
Set on our ground the truth.

Sacred love of the throne and the altar,
Fill our hearts with your immortal breath!
Among the foreign races,
Our guide is the law:
Let us know how to be a people of brothers,
Under the yoke of faith.
And repeat, like our fathers,
The battle cry: “For Christ and King!”
The battle cry: “For Christ and King!”

English Translations

By 1908, a number of Canadian writers translated the Chant National from French to English. Among them was Dr. Thomas Bedford Richardson, Mercy E. Powell McCulloch, Wilfred Campbell, Augustus Bridle, and Ewing Buchan.

The only English translation to gain widespread acceptance was one written by Robert Stanley Weir, a Montreal judge and writer, in 1908. Weir wrote the O Canada Lyrics in his summer home to mark the 300-year anniversary of the founding of Quebec City. He entitled the piece “O Canada”. His lyrics read:

O Canada! Our home and native land!
True patriot love thou dost in us command.
We see thee rising fair, dear land,
The True North, strong and free;
And stand on guard, O Canada,

We stand on guard for thee.


O Canada! O Canada!
O Canada! We stand on guard for thee.
O Canada! We stand on guard for thee.

O Canada! Where pines and maples grow,
Great prairies spread and lordly rivers flow,
How dear to us thy broad domain,
From East to Western Sea;
Thou land of hope for all who toil!
Thou True North, strong and free!

O Canada! Beneath thy shining skies
May stalwart sons and gentle maidens rise,
To keep thee steadfast through the years,
From East to Western Sea.
Our own beloved native land,
Our True North, strong and free!

Ruler Supreme, Who hearest humble prayer,
Hold our dominion within Thy loving care.
Help us to find, O God, in Thee,
A lasting, rich reward,
As waiting for the Better Day
We ever stand on guard.


Weir’s lyrics have undergone a number of revisions over the years. The first revision took place in 1913. It was a small revision to the second line, which replaced “thou dost in us command” with “in all thy sons command”.

Weir made the change himself without publicly disclosing a reason. Some historians suggest that Weir might have changed the lyrics in protest of the increasing fanaticism of the women’s suffragette movement. Whatever the case, the words “in all thy sons command” have since come to resonate with many Canadians as an homage to the 100,000 Canadian men who lost their lives fighting in the First and Second World Wars.

Weir made further minor amendments to the lyrics in 1914 and 1916.

In 1927, the O Canada was officially published in time for the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation. At the time, it was undoubtedly the most popular national song in French Canada. In English Canada, however, the Canadian National Anthem vied for popular supremacy with another patriotic song, The Maple Leaf Forever. The Maple Leaf Forever was written by Alexander Muir at the time of Confederation.

In 1980, the anthem was modified again. It became the version we know today. It might surprise some Canadians (me included!) to learn that there are actually four verses in the official anthem. Most of us are only familiar with the first verse. The additional three verses are slightly modified versions of the original verses written by Weir in 1908. These three are rarely sung. You can read all four verses at The Oh Canada Lyrics first verse, the one most of us are familiar with, goes thus:

O Canada! Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command.
With glowing hearts we see thee rise,
The True North strong and free!
From far and wide, O Canada,
We stand on guard for thee.
God keep our land, glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee;
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

The Canadian National Anthem

On June 18, 1980, the House of Commons voted on a bill proposing O Canada as Canada’s official national anthem. The vote was unanimous; the bill was passed. Almost exactly a century after Routhier and Lavallee created the its first version, the O Canada was proclaimed the official national anthem of Canada.

Since then, the anthem has become an integral part of Canadian identity. It has become as firmly rooted in Canadian culture as ice hockey, Mounties, and the Maple Leaf. It is sung daily in Canadian schools all over the country. It is played at sporting events and official ceremonies. It even features in some of our beer commercials!

So, what do you think, Canada? Should we change a couple of words in our national anthem to make it more politically correct? Or should we keep it the way it is? Let us know what you think in the comments below.


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Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls is the collective name for three massive waterfalls on the Niagara River (the short river that drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario): the Horseshoe Falls, the American Falls, and the Bridal Veil Falls. As the river straddles the Canadian-American border, so, too, do the waterfalls. Horseshoe Falls is the largest of the three. It is also known as the ‘Canadian Falls’, as two thirds of it are on the Canadian side of the boundary line. The American Falls, as its name suggests, rests entirely on the American side of the divide. The Bridal Veil Falls, the smallest of the three, is also located on the American side. Taken together, these three waterfalls, the Niagara Falls, are the largest waterfalls by flow rate in the world.

Niagra Falls Early History

The origin of the word ‘Niagara’ is a bit of a mystery. Some historians believe the word has its roots in the name of an obsolete First Nations tribe. The Onguiaahra, or Niagagarega, were a tribe of the Neutral Confederacy who occupied the area around Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Their name means either “near the big waters”, “thundering waters”, or “point of land cut in two” in the extinct language of the Neutral Confederacy. Others believe Niagara was the name of an Iroquois village in the area. Others still maintain that the name comes from the Iroquois word onyara, meaning ‘neck’. Perhaps we will never know for sure.

Another mystery surrounding the Niagara Falls is the identity of its discoverer. Of course, the local Iroquois and Neutral Confederacies had known about the existence of the Falls long before the first white man stepped foot in the Americas. However, many historians are divided on the name of the first European to discover them. The famous French explorer Samuel de Champlain was the first to write about the Niagara Falls, although he did not see them himself. The explorer heard reports of the great waterfalls from local Indians in the early 1600’s. Some historians speculate that a number of French Jesuit missionaries may have seen the Niagara Falls in the 1630’s and ’40’s. Among them was St. Jean de Brebeuf, who would be famously martyred by the Iroquois just west of the present day Capital of Canada in 1649. If these Jesuits saw the Niagara Falls, however, they neglected to write about them. Rene de Brehant de Galinee, a French Sulspician missionary, became the first white man to write about hearing the Falls in 1669. And in 1678, Louis Hennepin, a Flemish Recollect missionary and adventurer, wrote about seeing the Niagara Falls. He, along with French explorer Robert de La Salle and his crew, were en route to the mouth of the Niagara River 20 km upstream. There, they would build Fort Conti and a sailing ship christened Le Griffon. Le Griffon  would mysteriously disappear on the return trip of her maiden voyage across the Great Lakes… but that’s a story for another time.


The Battle of Queenston Heights

Throughout the years, the Niagara Falls have witnessed a number of important events in Canadian history. The first major event to take place within sight of the Falls was the Battle of Queenston Heights, the first major battle of the War of 1812.

On the early morning of October 13, 1812, three and a half thousand inexperienced American soldiers gathered on the American shores of the Niagara River. These Americans, under the command of General Stephen Van Rensselaer, attempted to cross the river about eights kilometers downriver of the Niagara Falls. They hoped to capture the British village of Queenston, thereby cutting off British supplies to western Upper Canada.

A sentry warned the British detachment at Queenston of the American advance. By the time the British soldiers had formed up, the first wave of American troops had crossed onto their side of the river. A small group of British infantry engaged this first wave while their artillery barraged the American landing stage from atop Queenston Heights. In return, American artillery across the river bombarded the village of Queenston. Despite British efforts, the first wave of American troops quickly beat back the defenders and captured the British battery on Queenston Heights.

Earlier that morning, British Major-General Isaac Brock heard cannon fire from nearby Fort George. Brock got out of bed, quickly mounted up, and arrived on the scene with a small detachment. Upon learning of the gravity of the situation, he sent word to Fort George for reinforcements. Rather than wait for the reinforcements to arrive, however, Brock decided to lead a charge from the village up to Queenston Heights to retake the artillery. Brock’s charge was repelled by the Americans, however. The General-Major himself was fatally wounded by a musket ball to the chest.

Throughout the day, British reinforcements began to arrive at the battlefield. The reinforcements included British regulars, Canadian Militia, and Iroquois warriors. The tide of the battle turned with their arrival. The British quickly regained Queenston Heights and thwarted the invasion. In the end, about nine hundred American soldiers surrendered to the British. The British themselves suffered minor casualties.


The Caroline Affair

Another major event to take place near Niagara Falls was the Caroline affair.

In the wake of the failed Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, a group of rebel leaders took refuge on Navy Island, a small river island about 4 km upriver of the Niagara Falls. The party was led by William Lyon Mackenzie. These rebels hoped to create a Canadian republic separate from the British Empire. The American government, which had no love for the British, sympathized with these Canadian rebels. They routinely sent a steamboat full of supplies to the rebel camp at Navy Island. The steamboat was named the SS Caroline.

The British soon learned of this development and dispatched a party of Canadian militia to sabotage the vessel. The militiamen were led to believe that the steamboat belonged to Mackenzie. They captured the boat on American territory and drove off the crew, killing a black crew member in the process. Then they set the boat on fire and let the current carry it past Navy Island and over the Niagara Falls.


The Maid of the Mists

In addition to the SS Caroline, a number of people and objects have gone over the Niagara Falls. According to Iroquois legend, the first person to go over the falls was a young Seneca widow named Lelawala. Upon losing her husband and suffering a number of misfortunes, Lelawala decided to end her life. One day, she got into her canoe and paddled down the Niagara River. She intended to paddle off the Niagara Falls to her death.

As Lelawala plunged over the waterfall, she was caught by Heno, the god of thunder. Heno took the girl to his home behind the waterfall, where he and his sons nursed her back to health. In time, Lelawala fell in love with Heno’s youngest son and became his wife. Together, they raised their family in a cave behind the waterfalls.

In 1846, a Niagara River ferry service was launched.The ferry would take passengers to and from the American and Canadian sides of the river. It was named The Maid of the Mists after the Iroquois legend. Over the years, The Maid of the Mists has been the name of various ferries and tourist attractions on the Niagara River. One such boat plies the waters below the Niagara Falls to this day.

In 1901, a schoolteacher named Annie Edson Taylor went over the Horseshoe Falls in a barrel. Taylor was 63 years old, and hoped her stunt would raise some retirement money. On October 24, she crawled inside the barrel. Her friends screwed the lid down. They used a bicycle tire to compress the air inside. Then, like any good friends would do, they plugged the hole with a cork and sent Taylor cascading over the Horsehoe Falls. Rescuers recovered the barrel shortly afterwards. After a bit of a struggle, they pried the lid open. They were astounded. Aside from a small head wound, Annie Taylor emerged from the barrel unscathed.

In the years to come, many more people would attempt to replicate Taylor’s stunt. Some, like Annie, went over the Niagara Falls in wooden barrels. Others went in kayaks, Jet Skis, or rubber balls. Some people have even gone over the Niagara Falls in nothing but their shoes and clothes… and lived to tell the tale! Many survived the fall. Some unfortunates did not.

In addition to human beings, a number of other animals have gone over the Niagara Falls. Some of these animals include buffalo, dogs, cats, raccoon, foxes, geese, eagles, and turtles. Most of these animals were sent over the Falls by people. A number of fish, however, go over the Niagara Falls on their own accord. According to some estimates, about 90% of them survive the fall.

Other Niagra Falls Stunts

In the fall of 1821, a 22-year-old American daredevil named Sam Patch jumped off the Niagara Falls. He jumped from a platform built on the edge of Goat Island, a tiny island at the top of the waterfall, into the frothing river 26 metres below. The crowd cheered wildly when Patch surfaced at the bottom, unharmed.

Patch repeated the stunt on October 17th of the same year. This time, however, he jumped from a staggering height of 40 metres. Against all odds, he survived. The daredevil went on to perform a similar stunt near Rochester New York. On Friday the 13th, November 1829, he jumped into Genesee Falls. The 38 metre fall killed him.

In 1859, a French tightrope walker named Charles Blondin successfully crossed the Niagara Gorge on a tightrope. The tightrope was not stretched over the Niagara Falls, but rather over the Niagara Gorge downstream. Blondin’s high wire act started a trend that would last for 37 years. Acrobats from all over the world flocked to the Niagara River to walk the high wire. Some of the more notable acrobats included William Hunt (a.k.a. ‘The Great Farini’) and Maria Spelterini. In 2012, American daredevil Nik Wallenda decided to one-up his 19th century predecessors. After receiving permission from both the Canadian and American governments, he walked on a tightrope across the top of the Niagara Falls. The tightrope was 550 metres long. According to Wallenda, that made his feat the longest unsupported tightrope walk in history. Wallenda crossed from the American side of the river to the Canadian side. At the end of his act, he pulled out his passport. Canadian border guards were waiting for him on the other side!

The Niagara Falls Today

Today, Niagara Falls is one of Canada’s most popular tourist attractions. On the Canadian side of the river, tourists can view the magnificent waterfalls from the Skylon Tower. For a more thrilling bird’s eye view of the natural wonder, tourists can tour the Falls via helicopter.

In Queenston, visitors can visit the site of the 1812 Battle of Queenston Heights. The park there is a National Historic Site. Brock’s Monument, a 56-metre tower, serves as a memorial for the Major-General who died there.

On the American side of the river, visitors can don blue plastic ponchos and take the Maid of the Mist boat tour to the misty base of the waterfalls. There, tourists can get a small taste of what thrill seekers like Annie Taylor must have experienced in their journeys over the Falls.

If you’d rather wear yellow ponchos, you can take the Cave of the Wind tour. The Cave of the Winds was a natural cave behind the Bridal Veil Falls (perhaps the home of the original Maid of the Mists?). Although the cave was destroyed in a rockfall in 1954, it still gets visitors. On the Cave of the Winds tour, tourists hike a wooden walkway to the base of the Bridal Veil Falls. The place is perpetually misty, and hikers often experience tropical storm-like conditions. To get any closer to the Niagara Falls, you’d have to be in a barrel!


Written by Hammerson Peters


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Capilano Suspension Bridge

If you travel a up the Capilano River from its mouth near the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver, BC, you’ll come to a long bridge suspended high up over the valley. This is the Capilano Suspension Bridge, one of British Columbia’s oldest and most popular tourist attractions.


In 1887, a Scottish civil engineer and real estate developer named George Grant Mackay sold his assets in the Highlands and left for the young city of Vancouver, Canada. An avid outdoorsman, he quickly became one of Vancouver’s first park commissioners, and was instrumental in the formation of Stanley Park.

In 1888, Mackay purchased 24 square kilometres of old growth forest on both sides of the Capilano River just north of the city and built a cabin at the southern edge of the canyon. The 65-year-old engineer knew that his recreational property on the north shore of the river was prime logging territory. He also knew that, if he was ensure its protection, he would have to establish some sort of presence there. Perhaps taking a cue from John A. Macdonald– who had the CPR built across Canada in the first half of that decade to ward against American occupation- Mackay decided to consolidate the two halves of his property by building a bridge.

In 1889, Mackay hired two local Coast Salish natives, Willie and August Jack Khatsahlano, to help with the construction. August, 12 years old at the time, would grow up become a chief and medicine man of the Squamish First Nation and the namesake of Vancouver’s Kitsilano district. Under Mackay’s direction, the two labourers helped Mackay build the simple suspension bridge from hemp ropes and cedar planks. With a team of horses, they brought the northern end of the bridge across the river. Then they hauled it up the canyon slope on foot and secured it to massive cedar logs, which they had buried on the other side.

In those days, the bridge became known by the natives as the Laughing Bridge cause of the noise it made when the wind blows through the canyon. Today, you can still hear the bridge laugh on a windy day.

In no time, Mackay’s bridge became Vancouver’s first tourist attraction. Adventurous Vancouverites known as ‘Capilano Tramps’ would make the short steamship journey from Vancouver, across the Burrard Inlet, to the North Shore. There, they would head up the rugged Water Works (now Capilano) Road to Mackay’s cabin and the bridge.

Ten years after Mackay’s death in 1903, the bridge was replaced with one made of wire cable. In 1910, a lawyer named Edward Mahon purchased the bridge. The story goes that he fell in love with and married his teenage bride, nine-teen-year-old Lilette Rebbeck. He brought her and her mother over from Vancouver Island. It is said he had bought the bridge for his bride as a wedding present. He built a Tea House on the property in 1911 and imported lavish oriental plants for his bride. His love for her is what made him furnish his land with gardens of beauty that surrounded the Tea House he built for her. Throughout the years, Mahon worked to improve the bridge’s structure.

In 1935, Mahon sold the bridge to his younger step-father-in-law, a Scottish forest ranger named ‘Mac’ MacEachran. MacEachran had married Lilette’s mother Elizabeth in 1921. Upon purchasing the bridge, the Scot invited the local natives to erect totem poles in the surrounding park. These totem poles still stand today. Mac promoted the bridge aggressively, dubbing it the ‘Eighth Wonder of the World’. Due to his efforts, the Capilano Suspension Bridge grew into a thriving tourist attraction, an oasis in the economic desert that was the Great Depression.

In 1945, MacEachran, now a widower, sold the bridge to a man named Henri Aubeneau and moved to California. Aubeneau in turn sold the bridge to a man named Rae Mitchell in 1953.

Mitchell, a natural entrepreneur, improved upon the Capilano Suspension Bridge and marketed it extensively. In 1956, he rebuilt the bridge completely, strengthening the cables and the anchors. He had trails built on the west side of the bridge, and he converted Mahon’s Tea House into a gift shop. Under Mitchell’s ownership, the Capilano Suspension Bridge rose from a quaint local stop-off to an internationally renowned tourist attraction. By the early ’80’s, the business had quadrupled in size.

In 1983, Mitchell sold the Capilano Suspension Bridge to his daughter, Nancy Stibbard. Stibbard continued her father’s work in developing and marketing the bridge. In 2000, she was inducted into the Canadian Tourism Hall of Fame for her massive contribution to Canadian tourism. Nancy still owns the bridge today.


The Capilano Suspension Bridge Today


It has been many years since I visited the Capilano Suspension Bridge.  With 850,000 visitors a year it is one of Vancouver’s most popular attractions.

At the entrance to the Capilano Suspension Bridge Park are a number of stores and restaurants where visitors can shop and eat. At the Trading Post and Gift Store, Mahon’s old Tea House, tourists can purchase various Canadian souvenirs.

The Story Centre, located on the east side of the Capilano River, is a museum where visitors can experience the bridge’s history. Photo-murals, didactic labels, and flip books tell the story the bridge’s various owners, of the Capilano Tramps, and of the early history of Vancouver.

The Capilano Suspension Bridge itself is 140 metres long, and is suspended 70 metres above the Capilano River. Although structurally sound and completely safe, the bridge wobbles from side to side when walked on, giving visitors a thrilling experience. The view of the surrounding valley from the Capilano Suspension Bridge is breathtaking.

On the west side of the bridge is a series of trails. One of these trail series, called’ Cliffwalk’, is the Capilano Suspension Bridge Park’s newest attraction. Open since July 2011, this trail is really a narrow path cantilevered and suspended on a cliff face high above the Capilano River. On some stretches of the walk, the floor beneath hikers’ feet is made of thick transparent glass, revealing valley floor far below. Scary!

Another trail series on the other side of the bridge is the popular Treetops Adventure. Treetops Adventure is a series of seven suspension bridges connected to Douglas firs. The bridges take hikers from tree to tree, and offer a spectacular view of the surrounding BC rainforest.

The Capilano Suspension Bridge is one of Vancouver’s top ten attractions.

This year is the Bridge’s 114th Anniversary where it brings in tourists from around the world to see the beauty of the canyon and the wonder of the laughing bridge.

Written by Dora Chartier and Hammerson Peters

Editors Note: Dora Chartier (alias Dangerous) is a writer of some renown and a fellow BRAT.  


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Sasquatch – The History of Canada’s Bigfoot

On Memorial Day 2015, tens of thousands of music lovers packed on the grassy slopes of the Main Stage of The Gorge Amphitheater near George, Washington. It was the fourth and last day of the Sasquatch Music Festival. With a spectacular view of the Columbia River below, fans cheered as various hip-hop, rock, EDM, and indie bands performed their sets throughout the day. Behind them in the grounds, artists could be found painting cartoon-like interpretations of the Festival’s eponymous Sasquatch – images evocative of a video taken on a Memorial Day weekend nineteen years earlier, at a site 200 kilometres to the north.

In the early evening of May 26, 1996, seven campers lounged on the western shore of Lake Chopaka, WA, about 9 kilometres south of the Canadian border. They had just come in after a long day’s fishing. One of the party was playing catch with her son and dog. Another, Owen Pate, was building a fire.

Suddenly, one of the campers cried out. She had spotted something strange nearby on the slopes of Chopaka Mountain. One by one, her six companions, beers in hand, joined her in peering up at the hillside.

No sooner had the camper begun to explain to her fellow outdoorsmen what she had seen than a dark, hairy, human-like figure stood up, emerging from concealment behind a bush no more than 70 metres away. The figure watched the campers for a moment before dashing into the nearby woods.

Owen Pate’s wife Lori, one of the seven, had brought a camcorder with her to the scene. At the insistence of her husband, she turned the device on and began to scan the hillside. Several minutes later, the Pates’ foresight was rewarded; the figure emerged from the woods about 160 metres up the mountain. Lori filmed the creature as it loped across the rugged slope on two legs. Another camper, Tom Lines, watched the scene unfold through a pair of binoculars. “It’s a Bigfoot,” he suggested, as the figure disappeared into the trees.

Over the years, the Pates’ ‘Memorial Day’ footage has been analyzed and interpreted by experts from a number of fields. Some dismiss the video as a hoax, and maintain that the mysterious subject is nothing more than a human in a costume. Others claim that the video is evidence supporting the existence of a creature long relegated to the realm of myth and legend. Fake or not, the controversial video and the hype that it has engendered give rise to the question: what is the Sasquatch?

The Legends

From the Yowie of Australia, to the Yeren of China, to the Yeti of the Himalayas, hairy wildmen feature in folklore around the world. Some, like the Mapinguari of the Amazonian rainforest, are said to be huge and powerful. Others, like the Ebu Gogo of the Floresian jungle, are purported to be small and wiry. Some are held to be friendly, while others are considered aggressive and dangerous. Some are flesh-and-blood animals, while others are creatures of the supernatural.

For centuries, the First Nations of Canada’s Pacific Northwest have told their own stories of wildmen inhabiting the coastal rainforests of British Columbia and Yukon. Although the names for these wildmen are many and varied, most of them fall into one of four categories: Bukwus; Dzunukwa; Kushtaka; and Sasquatch.



  • Kwakwaka-wakw (Kwakiutl) of northern Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Sound.

The Bukwus is a savage, human-like spirit which lived on the edge of the rainforest and near rivers and streams. Emaciated and long haired, he is also known as ‘The Wild Man of the Woods’ and ‘The Chief of the Ghosts’. The Bukwus is associated with drowning victims, and is said to persuade human travelers to eat ghost food, which will turn them into spirits.



  • Kwakwaka-wakw (Kwakiutl) of northern Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Sound.
  • Nootka of the west coast of Vancouver Island

Dzunukwa is a huge, old, black ogress who lives deep in the woods. She seeks to snatch up bad children and carry them to her lair in a basket, where she eats them. Slow, dim-witted, and nearly blind, Dzunukwa rarely succeeds in her endeavors. It is said that the call of Dzunukwa resembles the sound of the wind blowing through cedars. Accordingly, she is often depicted in masks and carvings with pursed red lips.



  • Tlingit of northwest BC, southern Yukon, and southeast Alaska
  • Tsimshian of the Pacific Coast near Prince Rupert and Terrace, BC
  • Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands
  • Nootka of the west coast of Vancouver Island

According to Indian tradition, Kushtaka, or ‘Land Otter Men’, are small shape-shifters which can take the forms of otters, humans, and human-sized otter men. Considered to be evil tricksters, the Kushtaka are said to prey on those who have drowned or become lost in the woods. They ‘save’ their victims before stealing their souls. Other times, the Kushtaka attack their victims with sharp claws. The Kushtaka is said to emit a high-pitched whistle alternating from low to high.



  • Coast Salish peoples of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon
  • Tsimshian of the Pacific Coast near Prince Rupert and Terrace, BC
  • Nuxalt of the Bella Coola Valley, BC

The Sasquatch are hairy, human-like giants who live deep within the forests. They are very tall, extremely powerful, and have a terrible smell. They communicate with each other through grunts and whistles, and can sometimes be heard howling in the night. Some legends maintain that Sasquatches are friendly. Shy and reclusive, they tend to avoid human settlements. Although they may abduct humans from time to time, they rarely harm them. Other legends suggest that the Sasquatch is a vicious creature prone to attack humans and kidnap children. In some tales, the Sasquatch feeds on human flesh.

Note: Stories of Sasquatch-like creatures are not only common on the Pacific Northwest, but also among the Athabascan tribes of the Canadian north.


For centuries, the First Nations of Canada’s Northwest Coast have told tales of encounters with the Sasquatch. However, it would not be until the 19th century when white men reported sightings of their own Big Foot.

In the winter of 1811, North West Company surveyor David Thompson and his crew searched for a passage west through the Rocky Mountains near present-day Jasper, Alberta. Their efforts would lead them to discover the Athabasca Pass. On January 7, while searching for the route, Thompson spotted a set of large, peculiar animal tracks in the snow. The tracks measured 14 inches long by 8 inches wide. They bore four large toes, each 3-4 inches long with small nails on the end. The ball of the foot sunk three inches lower than the toes. Thompson estimated that the creature had passed that way about six hours earlier, and was subsequently in no mood to pursue it. Today, some speculate that Thompson may have stumbled upon Sasquatch tracks.

Following the Klondike Gold Rush of the late 1800’s, prospectors and miners returned from the wilds of the Yukon to civilization, telling all manner of strange tales. The saloons of Skagway and Dawson City, and the bars of Seattle and San Francisco, resounded with stories of hidden valleys, lost mines, phantom lights, woolly mammoths, and, of course, wild ape-men. Decades later, many of these tales found their way into obscure northern newspapers.

Perhaps the most famous of all Canadian Sasquatch encounters of the story of Albert Ostman. Ostman was a Canadian logger and construction worker. In 1924, after a particularly long construction project, he decided to take a much needed holiday. He purchased a prospecting outfit and set out for the head of Toba Inlet near Powell River, BC, where he hoped to search for a particular lost gold mine. According to the old Indian who ferried Ostman to the inlet, a Sasquatch had killed the prospector who initially discovered the bonanza.

After several days prospecting without luck, strange things began to happen. Ostman would wake after a good night’s sleep to discover that some of his things had been disturbed in the night. Some of his provisions started to go missing. One night, Ost climbed up onto a rock overlooking his camp, boots on his feet and rifle in hand. He hoped to catch the culprit in the act. No sooner had he nodded off, however, when he was jerked awake. Disoriented, he quickly realized that he was inside his sleeping bag, being hauled away by something huge.

After a very uncomfortable three hour ride, Ostman was let down. He crawled from his sleeping bag to discover himself inside a cave, surrounded by four hairy giants. In Ostman’s words, “they look like a family, old man, old lady, and two young ones, a boy and a girl.” According to the logger, the giants spoke in a crude language, often using gestures in order to communicate with each other.

The wildmen held Ostman captive for six days, feeding him “some kind of grass with long sweet roots”. On the sixth day, Ostman enticed the eight-foot-tall ‘old man’ to eat an entire box of snuff tobacco. In the chaos that ensued, the logger gathered his belongings and escaped into the woods. After a day of fleeing and a restless night, Ostman happened upon a logging crew and found his way back to civilization. Out of fear of derision, he chose not to reveal his story until 1957.

On the surface, Ostman’s tale seems too fantastic to believe. What lends it credence, however, is the fact that Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew McCormack Naismith, a respected police magistrate from Agassiz-Harrison BC, cross-examined Ostman in 1957. After a rigorous examination, Naismith concluded that the retired logger was of sound mind, had a seamless story, and appeared to be telling the truth.

Another Canadian Sasquatch story worth recounting is the tale of ‘Muchalat Harry’. Harry was a Nootka trapper of the Muchalat tribe from the now-abandoned village of Nuchatlitz (or possibly Yuquot), on Vancouver Island, BC. Physically imposing and reputedly fearless, he  was an anomaly among his fellow Nootka. Undaunted by the prospect of running into a Sasquatch, he often went on extended trapping trips that took him deep into the woods, alone.

On one trapping venture in the fall of 1928, Harry paddled his canoe from Nuchatlitz to the mouth of the Conuma River on Tlupana Inlet. There, he cached his canoe and proceeded up the river on foot. About twenty kilometres upstream, he made camp, built a lean-to, and set out his trap line.

One night, Harry, clad only in his underwear and wrapped in his blankets, was picked up by a massive male Sasquatch. Although the Indian was strong, he was no match for the larger animal. He struggled in vain as the Sasquatch carried him deeper into the woods.

After no more than five kilometres, the Sasquatch laid Harry down. The terrified Nootka found himself in a sort of camp filled with male and female Sasquatches of all ages. A number of large bones lay scattered at his feet. The wildmen made no move to hurt Harry, but simply stared at him curiously as dawn came. Every once in a while, an enterprising Sasquatch would step forward and touch him.

Eventually, the Sasquatch lost their interest and gradually moved out of the camp. Harry took advantage of the opportunity and ran into the woods. He raced past his own camp, leaving his gun and traps behind, and headed straight for his cached canoe. In nothing but his underwear, he untied his craft and paddled out into the fog.

Late that night, Harry’s canoe slid into Nuchatlitz. Using what strength he had left, the dying Indian called for help. Lamps were lit, and Harry, exhausted and hypothermic, was rescued.

Harry was nursed back to health by Father Anthony Terhaar, a Benedictine missionary living in Nuchatlitz at the time. During the three-week-long recovery, Harry’s hair turned from black to pure white. Upon his recovery, Harry refused to go back to the Conuma River to collect his belongings. In fact, in the aftermath of his escapade, Harry never left the village nor went into the woods again for the rest of his life.

Since ‘Muchalat Harry’ and Albert Ostman’s misadventures, there have been hundreds of reported Sasquatch sightings in British Columbia and the Yukon, along with many more in Washington, Oregon, and northern California. According to the Bigfoot Field Researchers’ Organization, there have also been a fair number of Sasquatch encounters reported in Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario.

Many of the purported encounters are eerily similar. Witnesses who claim to have seen a Sasquatch typically describe it as a 6-8-foot-tall bipedal animal covered in either dark brown or reddish hair. Most eye witnesses claim that the Sasquatch has a conical head, a flat face, black skin, long arms, and no neck. According to many supposed witnesses, the Sasquatch is preceded by a terrible stench somewhat akin to the smells of burning garbage, wet dog, and rotting flesh.

Although relatively few people claim to have seen a Sasquatch, many more believe they may have heard one. Residents of remote regions of the Pacific Northwest, very much familiar with the sounds of the local fauna, sometimes report hearing strange, high-pitched screams and howls in the night. Some people report hearing a mysterious whistle that alternates from low to high.


There have been many ideas put forth over the years as to what exactly the Sasquatch is. Many of Canada’s First Nations believed that the Sasquatch is simply another animal, lying somewhere between the realm of Man and Beast. This sentiment is echoed by a number of biologists like Canada’s Dr. John Bindernagel, who believe that the Sasquatch is a rare species of North American great ape just waiting to be discovered.

Some anthropologists believe that the legends of the Sasquatch are the products of a collective cultural memory of prehistoric times. They believe that wildmen myths around the world are the legacy of the Neanderthal, Gigantopithecus, and other extinct hominids believed to have once walked the earth alongside early humans. Others believe that the Sasquatch and other wildmen are, in fact, those same hominids themselves.

Many skeptics argue that Sasquatch ‘encounters’ are examples of the mind playing tricks. They maintain that people believe what they want to believe. To these skeptics, a Sasquatch sighting is nothing more than the product of, for example, a bear encounter and a wild imagination.

Lastly, some people believe that the Sasquatch is not an animal, nor a figment of the imagination, but rather a supernatural entity. These people typically maintain that the wildman of Northwest Coast is a bad omen.

Whatever the case, the Sasquatch certainly ads to the aura of mystery and romance that surrounds the Pacific Northwest. If nothing else, the Sasquatch is- like the Ogopogo and the Turtle Lake Monster– one of the great Mysteries of Canada.


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Capital of Canada

If stones could speak, the bedrock of the Ottawa River in Ottawa, Ontario, would never stop talking. Throughout the years, the river that runs through the capital of Canada has borne all manner of watercraft, from the birch-bark canoes of Algonquin hunters to the iron-hulled steamboats of the Union Forwarding & Railway Company. As the river has seen countless tons of freshwater flow from its source in the Laurentian Mountains into the great St. Lawrence, it has witnessed a scrap of land on its shores rise from an obscure stretch of forest to the capital of Canada.

Long before the first white man stepped foot in Canada, the Ottawa Valley was home to Canada’s Algonquin First Nations. Primarily hunters and fishermen, these semi-nomadic people spent their summers in small seasonal villages. They often traveled up and down the Ottawa River in slender birch-bark canoes to trade with one another. In the fall and winter, they left their wigwams and scattered into smaller groups to follow the wild game.

In 1610, a young adventurer named Etienne Brule, under the guidance of French explorer Samuel de Champlain, went to live among the Huron people of Georgian Bay. He hoped to master their language and learn about their territory. On his journey, he became the first European to travel up the Ottawa River and see the site of the present-day capital of Canada. In the years to come, many young Frenchmen followed Brule’s example and took to the woods to live with the natives. These frontiersmen independents who fomented the North American fur trade became known collectively as the coureurs des bois. From the early 1600’s to the early 1800’s, they, along with indentured voyageurs, traveled up the Ottawa River and deep into the wilderness to trade French goods for Indian furs.

In the mid 17th century, war broke out between French/Algonquin/Huron and Iroquois forces. Several skirmishes were fought along the shores of the Ottawa River. In the spring of 1649, twelve hundred Iroquois warriors armed with Dutch firearms traveled up the Ottawa River and west into Huron territory. There, they massacred the Huron (along with several Jesuit missionaries) and drove the survivors north.

In the early 1800’s, the British Empire went to war with Napoleon’s France. The British Royal Navy, short on ships, turned to the Ottawa Valley for quality timber. In no time, a small logging village called Wrightsville (named after founder Philemon Wright) sprouted on the river’s shore. Huge timber rafts were assembled and floated down the river into the St. Lawrence and to Quebec City.

In the wake of the War of 1812, the British government feared an American invasion. In the event that American forces took the southern section of the St. Lawrence River, the important route between Montreal and Kingston would be severed. As a precaution, the British planned to build a waterway linking the Ottawa River with Kingston. Lieutenant-Colonel John By, a British Royal Engineer, was tasked with the canal’s construction. He chose a place for the canal’s entrance near Wrightsville and founded a town on the spot. The town, named Bytown after its founder, would one day become Ottawa, the capital of Canada.


Construction of the canal commenced in 1826. After six years, 822,000 pounds stirling, and nearly a thousand dead workers, the canal was completed. The waterway, called the Rideau Canal, was 202 km long and included sections of various rivers and lakes. Since the project was over budget, John By was retired without praise and recalled to London. According to local lore, his spirit may have returned to haunt Ottawa’s very creepy Bytown Museum.  That’s a story for another time.

On New Years Day, 1855, Bytown was incorporated as a city and renamed Ottawa. Nearly three years later, on New Years Eve, 1857, Queen Victoria was asked to select a capital for the British Province of Canada. On the advice of John A. Macdonald, she chose Ottawa as the Capital of Canada.


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